• Home
• /
• Blog
• /
• The Over-Excitation Testing (24) Chapter is Complete. What Should be in the Synchronizing Chapter (25)?

# The Over-Excitation Testing (24) Chapter is Complete. What Should be in the Synchronizing Chapter (25)?

The first draft of the Over-Excitation (24-Element) Chapter is finally complete and off to the editors. We cover the theory and step-by-step testing procedures over 60 pages! You can see all the topics and figures covered at the end of this post.

Now I’m ready to start the Synchronizing (25) chapter. Add a comment below to make sure I cover what you want, including:

• What issues have you experienced when performing 25-Element Testing?
• What do you wish everyone knew about 25-Element Testing?

Thanks for your patience and input!

1. Introduction to Generators 14
A. The Prime Mover 17
B. The Generator Stator 23
C. The Generator Rotor 25
2. Generator Control Systems 26
A. Governor Control in Solo Generator Systems 26
B. Voltage Control in Solo Generator Systems 34
C. Governor Control in Small Generating Systems 40
D. AVR Control in Small Generating Systems 46
E. Governor Control on a Large Grid 49
F. Excitation Control on a Large Grid 51
G. Synchronizing Generators 53
a) Frequency 53
b) Voltage 54
c) Phase Angle 55
d) Breaker Closing Time 55
H. More Resources 57
3. Generator Diagrams 58
A. Waveforms 58
B. Phasor Diagrams 61
C. Impedance Drawings 63
D. Power (PQ) Drawings 67
E. Generator Capability Curves 72
4. Getting Ready to Test 76
A. Generator Nameplate 77
a) Current 77
b) Voltage 77
c) Frequency 78
d) Capacity 78
e) Power Factor 78
f) Rating 79
g) Relay Settings 79
B. Single Line Drawing 79
a) CT Secondary Rating 81
b) C.T. Neutral Ratio / CTR 81
c) C.T. Phase Ratio / CTRD 82
d) V.T. Phase Ratio / PTR 82
e) V.T. Neutral Ratio / PTRN 82
f) System Phase Sequence / PHROT 82
C. Three-line Drawings 83
a) CT Secondary Rating 84
b) C.T. Neutral Ratio / CTR / C.T. Phase Ratio / CTRD 84
c) V.T. Phase Ratio / PTR 84
d) V.T. Neutral Ratio / PTRN 84
e) System Phase Sequence / PHROT 84
f) V.T. Configuration / DELTA_Y 84
D. Determine the Correct Neutral PT Direction from Three Line Drawings 85
E. Determine the Correct Neutral CT Direction from Three Line Drawings 87
F. Determine the Phase CT Direction from Three Line Drawings 90
G. Schematic Drawings 91
I. Current Transformer Connections between Test-Set and Relay 93
J. Connect Wye PTs between Test-Set and Relay 95
K. Delta-connected PTs 96
L. Relay Outputs to Test-Set Inputs 97
M. Relay Inputs to Test-Set Outputs 98
N. How to Create Realistic Fault Simulations 101
a) How to Create Three-Phase Fault Simulations 103
b) How to Create Phase-Phase Fault Simulations 105
c) How to Create Phase-Ground Fault Simulations 107
d) Fault Simulation Calculations 109
5. Element Testing Principles 112
A. Nominal Current Calculations 112
B. Nominal Phase-Phase Voltage Calculations 114
C. Nominal Phase-Neutral Voltage Setting Calculations 115
D. Nominal Phase-Neutral Voltage Test-Set Output 115
E. Energized and Offline Test State 115
F. Energized and Online Test State 117
G. Pickup Tests 119
H. Timing Tests 123
I. Breaker Status Blocking Tests 124
J. Loss-Of-Potential (60, 60LOP, LOP) Blocking Tests 125
K. Evaluating Results 126
L. Review the Relay Response 128
a) Turn on a LED 128
b) Display a Message 129
c) Add Information to a Sequence of Events Report 129
d) Record an Oscillography Report 129
M. Dynamic Pickup/Timing Tests 129
a) Omicron Test Universe 133
b) Doble Protection Suite 133
c) Manta Front Panel 133
d) No-Pickup Test Procedure for Enoserv RTS and Other Software 134
e) Pickup Test Procedure for Enoserv RTS and Other Software 134
f) Timing Test Procedure for Enoserv RTS and Other Software 135
g) LOP Block Test Procedure for Enoserv RTS and Other Software 135
h) Breaker Block Test Procedure for Enoserv RTS and Other Software 136
N. Dynamic Pickup/Timing Test Template for Generator Relay Testing 137
a) Connect All Relay Outputs Set to Operate to Test-Set Inputs 137
b) Review the Relay Inputs 137
c) Apply an Energized and Offline State 138
d) Apply an Online State 138
e) Apply an LOP State 139
f) Apply an LOP Block Test State 140
g) Apply an Online State 141
h) Apply a Breaker Block Test State 142
i) Apply an Online State 143
j) Apply a No-Pickup State Outside the Expected Tolerance 144
k) Apply an Online State 145
l) Apply a Pickup State Outside the Expected Tolerance 146
m) Apply an Online State 147
n) Apply a Timing Test State Outside the Expected Tolerance 148
o) Apply a Postfault State for Better Targeting 149
p) Apply a Postfault State for Better Targeting 150
q) Evaluate and Record Your Test Results 150
O. Logic Testing 151
P. What to Do when the “Wrong” Element Operates During a Test 151
6. Acceptance Testing 154
A. Self-Test 154
B. Digital Outputs 155
C. Digital Inputs 155
D. Analog to Digital Converters (CT/PT Inputs) 155
a) Phase Angles 155
b) Testing Wye Voltages 157
c) Testing Current with Wye Voltages 158
7. Commissioning Tests 161
A. Meter Tests with a Wye Connection 162
B. Meter Tests with a Three-Phase Delta Voltage Connection 162
C. Current Meter Test with Delta Voltages 168
D. Verify Phase Direction during a Meter Test 175
E. Verify Phase Rotation during a Meter Test 177
F. Verify Phases during a Meter Test 179
G. Verify Differential Metering 180
H. Digital Outputs 183
I. Digital Inputs 187
J. Element Testing 187
a) Understand the Basic Operation of the Element 187
b) Choose the Appropriate Fault Type 188
c) Perform a Pickup Test 188
d) Perform a Timing Test 191
K. Verify the Relay Logic Schemes 192
L. Clear all Monitoring Functions 193
8. Maintenance Tests 194
9. Testing Phase Distance / Phase Distance Elements (21) 196
A. Review the Phase Impedance Settings and Specifications 199
a) Delta-Y Transform / Z1CMP / Z2CMP Setting 200
b) EBUP Setting 200
c) Circle Diameter #1 / Circle Diameter #2 / Circle Diameter #3 Setting 200
d) Z1R / Z2R Setting 200
e) Offset #1 / Offset #2 /Offset #3 / Z1O / Z2O Setting 201
f) Impedance Angle #1 / Impedance Angle #2 / Impedance Angle #3 / MTA1 / MTA2 Setting 201
g) Time Delay #1 / Time Delay #2 / Time Delay #3 / Z1D / Z2D Settings 203
h) Blocking Inputs / 21PTC 203
i) Outputs / Trip, Close, ER, Output Elements 204
j) Load Encroachment / MPF / MXLD Settings 205
k) Overcurrent Supervision Setting 206
l) Out-of-Step Settings 206
B. Draw the Phase Distance Characteristics 207
C. Perform a Zone-1 Three-Phase Timing Test 208
a) Apply an Energized and Offline Test-State 208
b) Apply an Energized and Online Test-State 208
c) Apply a Timing Test-State 208
d) Apply a Postfault-State 210
e) The following charts demonstrate the 21-Element Timing Test: 210
f) Evaluate the Results 211
g) Review the Relay Responses 211
D. Perform a Zone-1 Breaker Status Blocking Test 212
a) Evaluate the Results 213
E. Perform a Zone-1 Loss-Of-Potential (60, 60LOP, LOP) Blocking Test 214
b) Evaluate the Results 215
F. Perform a Zone-2 Three-Phase Timing Test 215
a) Apply an Energized and Offline Test-State 216
b) Apply an Energized and Online Test-State 217
c) Apply a Timing Test-State 217
d) Apply a Postfault-State 217
e) The following charts demonstrate the 21-Element Timing Test: 218
f) Evaluate the Results 219
g) Review the Relay Responses 219
G. Perform a Zone-2 Breaker Status Blocking Test 219
h) Evaluate the Results 221
H. Perform a Zone-2 Loss-Of-Potential (60, 60LOP, LOP) Blocking Test 221
i) Evaluate the Results 223
I. Perform a Zone-1 Dynamic Pickup Test 223
a) Perform a Zone-1 Dynamic Test at 95% of the Zone-1 Pickup 224
b) Evaluate the Zone-1 Dynamic Test at 95% of the Zone-1 Pickup Results 226
c) Perform a Zone-1 Dynamic Test at 105% of the Zone-1 Pickup 227
d) Evaluate the Zone-1 Dynamic Test at 105% of the Zone-1 Pickup Results 228
e) Perform a Zone-1 Dynamic Test at 95% of the Zone-1 Pickup – Revised 229
f) Evaluate the Zone-1 Dynamic Test at 95% of the Zone-1 Pickup Results 230
g) Perform a Zone-1 Dynamic Test at 105% of the Zone-1 Pickup – Revised 231
h) Evaluate the Zone-1 Dynamic Test at 105% of the Zone-1 Pickup Results 232
i) Perform a Zone-2 Dynamic Test at 95% of the Zone-2 Pickup 233
j) Evaluate the Zone-2 Dynamic Test at 95% of the Zone-2 Pickup Results 234
k) Perform a Zone-2 Dynamic Test at 105% of the Zone-2 Pickup 235
l) Evaluate the Zone-2 Dynamic Test at 105% of the Zone-2 Pickup Results 236
J. Perform a MTA Test 237
a) Perform a Ramping MTA Test 237
b) Perform a Pulsing MTA Test 238
K. Phase-to-Phase Impedance Tests 242
10. Testing Volts/Hertz (V/Hz) Over-Excitation Elements (24) 246
A. Review the Over-Excitation (24 V/Hz) Settings and Specifications 249
a) Definite Time #1 Pickup / Definite Time #2 Pickup / 24D1P Settings 250
b) Definite Time #1 Delay / Definite Time #2 Delay / 24D1D Settings 250
c) 24CCS Setting 250
d) Inverse Time Pickup / 24IP Settings 250
e) Inverse Time Curve / 24IC Settings 250
f) Inverse Time Time Dial / 24ITD Setting 250
g) 24D2P2 Setting 251
h) 24D2D2 Setting 251
i) Inverse Reset Rate / 24CR Settings 251
j) Blocking Inputs / 24TC 252
k) Outputs / Trip, Close, ER, Output Elements 252
B. Understanding 24-Element Terminology 253
a) V/Hz 253
b) Nominal V/Hz 253
c) Applied Voltage 253
d) Applied Frequency 253
e) Applied V/Hz 253
f) Measured Voltage 253
g) Measured Frequency 254
h) Measured V/Hz 254
i) Test V/Hz 254
j) Relay V/Hz 254
k) Multiple of V/Hz Setting 254
C. Draw the Over-Excitation Characteristics 255
D. Get Ready to Perform 24-Element Testing 259
E. Perform a 24-Element Inverse Time Test 260
a) Apply an Energized and Offline Test-State 260
b) Apply an Energized and Online Test-State 260
c) Apply a Timing Test-State at 105% of Pickup 261
d) Apply a Postfault-State 268
e) The following charts demonstrate the 24-Inverse Timing Test: 269
f) Evaluate the Results 270
g) Review the Relay Responses 270
h) Apply a Second 24-Inverse Timing Test 271
i) The following charts demonstrate the Second 24-Inverse Timing Test: 274
j) Evaluate the Results 275
k) Review the Relay Responses 275
F. Apply a 24-Inverse Reset Timing Test 276
a) 24-Inverse Reset Dynamic Time Test #1: 278
b) Evaluate the Results 280
c) 24-Inverse Reset Dynamic Time Test #2: 281
d) Evaluate the Results 283
G. Perform a 24-Definite Trip Time Test 284
a) Apply an Energized and Offline Test-State 284
b) Apply an Energized and Online Test-State 284
c) Apply a 24-Element Timing Test State 284
d) Apply a Postfault-State 285
e) The following charts demonstrate the 24-Definite Timing Test: 286
f) Evaluate the Results 287
g) Review the Relay Responses 287
H. Perform a 24-Definite Time Loss-Of-Potential Blocking Test 288
a) Apply the 24-Definite Time 60-LOP Blocking Test Plan: 288
b) Evaluate the Results 290
I. Perform a 24-Inverse Time Loss-Of-Potential Blocking Test 290
a) Apply the 24-Definite Time 60-LOP Blocking Test Plan: 290
b) Evaluate the Results 292
J. Apply a 24-Inverse Pickup Test 292
a) Set Up the 24-Inverse Pulsing Pickup Test Plan 295
b) Run the 24-Inverse Pickup Test 297
c) Evaluate the Results 297
K. Perform a 24-Alarm Dynamic Pickup/Timing Test 298
a) Apply an Energized and Offline Test-State 298
b) Apply an Energized and Online Test-State 298
c) Apply a 24-Element Timing Test State Above the Pickup Setting 299
d) Apply a Postfault-State 299
e) The following charts demonstrate the First 24-Alarm Dynamic Timing Test: 300
f) Evaluate the Results 301
g) Review the Relay Responses 301
h) Apply the Second Half of the 24-Alarm Dynamic Pickup/Time Test 302
i) Apply a 24-Element Timing Test State Below the Pickup Setting 303
L. The following charts demonstrate the Second 24-Alarm Timing Test: 304
j) Evaluate the Results 305
k) Review the Relay Responses 305
M. Troubleshooting 24-Element Tests 305
a) 24-Element Troubleshooting Step #1 305
b) 24-Element Troubleshooting Step #2 305
c) What if the 81-Element operates first 306
d) What if the 59-Element operates first 306
11. Bibliography 313

Here is the Table of Figures for the upcoming
The Relay Testing Handbook: Testing Generator Relays so far:

## Table of Figures

Figure 1-1: Early DC Power System Voltage Drop 15
Figure 1-2: Early AC Power System Voltage Drop 16
Figure 1-3: Generator Block Diagram 18
Figure 1-4: Coal Fired Power Plant Diagram 19
Figure 1-5: BWR Nuclear Power Plant Diagram 19
Figure 1-6: Hydroelectric Dam 20
Figure 1-7: Hydroelectric Generator Cross-Section 20
Figure 1-8: Pump Storage 21
Figure 1-9: Gas Turbine Block Diagram 22
Figure 1-10: Co-Generation Plant Block Diagram 22
Figure 1-11: Internal-Combustion Engine Generator Block Diagram 23
Figure 1-12: Simplified Generator Stator 24
Figure 1-13: Hydro-Generator Stator 25
Figure 1-14: Simplified Generator Rotor 26
Figure 1-15: Example Generator Rotor 26
Figure 2-1: Generator Frequency Control Diagrams – No Load 28
Figure 2-2: Generator Frequency Control Diagrams – Energizing System Only 29
Figure 2-4: Generator Load Frequency Control Diagrams – 25% Load – ISOCH 31
Figure 2-5: Generator Load Frequency Control Diagrams – 100% Load – ISOCH 32
Figure 2-6: Generator Load Frequency Control Diagrams – 132% Load – ISOCH 33
Figure 2-7: Generator Load Shedding Scheme 34
Figure 2-8: Generator Voltage with No Load 35
Figure 2-9: Generator Voltages – System Load Only 36
Figure 2-10: Generator Automatic Voltage Regulator – System Load Only 37
Figure 2-11: Generator Automatic Voltage Regulator – 25% Load 38
Figure 2-12: Generator Automatic Voltage Regulator – 100% Load 39
Figure 2-13: Generator Automatic Voltage Regulator – Fault 40
Figure 2-14: Generator Governor Load Sharing and Speed Controller 42
Figure 2-15: Generator Governor Droop Control with 4% Droop 43
Figure 2-16: Generator Governor Droop Control with Variable Droop Settings 44
Figure 2-17: Generator Governor Droop Control with Multiple Generators 45
Figure 2-18: Governor Droop Control with Multiple Generators and Different Settings 45
Figure 2-19: Generator AVR Voltage Sharing with Identical Voltages 47
Figure 2-20: Generator AVR Voltage Sharing with 0.01V Different Voltages 48
Figure 2-21: Generator AVR Voltage Sharing with 1% Different Voltages 48
Figure 2-22: Generator AVR Voltage Sharing with 2% Different Voltages 48
Figure 2-23: Generator Excitation Droop Control with Dead Band Settings 49
Figure 2-24: Governor Droop Control with Multiple Generators and Dead Band Settings 51
Figure 2-25: Phase Angle Delta-V Comparison 56
Figure 2-26: Breaker Closing Time Affects Synchronization 57
Figure 3-1: Clean Sine Wave 59
Figure 3-2: Dirty Sine Wave 59
Figure 3-3: Beckwith M-3425A Oscillograph with Balanced Currents and Voltages 60
Figure 3-4: SEL-300G Oscillograph with Balanced Currents and Voltages 61
Figure 3-5: SEL-300G Oscillograph with Balanced Currents 61
Figure 3-6: Simple Single Line Drawing 62
Figure 3-7: Generator Metering Results 62
Figure 3-8: Generator and Load Phasor Diagrams 63
Figure 3-9: Phasor Relation to Watts and VARs 64
Figure 3-10: Primary Impedance Calculation 65
Figure 3-11: Secondary Impedance Calculation 65
Figure 3-12: Primary to Secondary Impedance Calculation 66
Figure 3-13: 3-Phase Delta to Wye Calculation 66
Figure 3-14: Generator Phasor and Impedance Diagram Under Normal Load 66
Figure 3-15: Generator Phasor and Impedance Diagram During a System Fault 67
Figure 3-16: Power/VAR (PQ) Drawing Standards 68
Figure 3-17: Power/VAR (PQ) Drawing 69
Figure 3-18: Incorrect Power/VAR (PQ) Drawing 70
Figure 3-19: Complex Power Calculation 71
Figure 3-20: Power/VAR (PQ) Drawing Standards 72
Figure 3-21: Steam Generator Capability Curve 73
Figure 4-1: Motor Nameplate 78
Figure 4-2: How to Calculate Amps from VA 79
Figure 4-3: How to Calculate VARs from Power Factor 79
Figure 4-4: How to Calculate Amps from Watts 80
Figure 4-5: Single Line Drawing 81
Figure 4-6: Single Line Drawing 84
Figure 4-7: Neutral PT Connections from Instruction Manuals 86
Figure 4-8: Neutral PT Connections from Three-Line 87
Figure 4-9: Normal Generator Current Flow 88
Figure 4-10: Possible CT Connections from the Beckwith Electric M-3425A Relay Manual 89
Figure 4-11: Standard Neutral CT Connections from Instruction Manual 89
Figure 4-12: Standard Neutral CT Connections from Instruction Manual 90
Figure 4-13: Standard Neutral CT Connections from Instruction Manual 90
Figure 4-14: SEL-300G Instruction Manual Three-Line Drawing 91
Figure 4-15: Site Three-Line CT Drawing for SEL-300G 91
Figure 4-16: Site Schematic Drawing for Beckwith M-3425A 92
Figure 4-17: Site Schematic Drawing for SEL-300G 92
Figure 4-18: Site Three-Line CT Drawing 94
Figure 4-19: Standard Three-Line CT Drawing 95
Figure 4-20: Current Connections for Test-Set with Three Currents 96
Figure 4-21: Wye PT Connections 96
Figure 4-22: Delta PT Connections 97
Figure 4-23: Test-Set to Relay DC Connections 98
Figure 4-24: Dry Digital Input Connections 99
Figure 4-25: Wet Digital Input Connections 101
Figure 4-26: Test-Set Supplied Wet Contacts 102
Figure 4-27: Three-Phase Normal Conditions 103
Figure 4-28: Three-Phase Fault Calculation Summary 104
Figure 4-29: Three-Phase Fault Conditions 105
Figure 4-30: Phase-Phase Fault Calculation Summary 106
Figure 4-31: Phase-Phase Fault Conditions 107
Figure 4-32: Phase-Ground Fault Calculation Summary 108
Figure 4-33: Phase-Ground Fault Conditions 109
Figure 4-34: Fault Simulation Magnitude and Angle Calculations 111
Figure 5-1: Nominal Current Setting Calculation 115
Figure 5-2: Nominal Phase-Phase Voltage Setting Calculation 115
Figure 5-3: Nominal Phase-Neutral Voltage Setting Calculation 116
Figure 5-4: Energized State Setup 117
Figure 5-5: Online State Setup Without Current 118
Figure 5-6: Online State Setup with Current and In-Phase CTs 119
Figure 5-7: Online State Setup with Current and Out-Of-Phase CTs 119
Figure 5-8: Pickup Test Plan and Parameters 122
Figure 5-9: Simulate Loss-of-Potential Blocking with a Test-Set Output 124
Figure 5-10: Simulate Loss-of-Potential Blocking with a Test-Set Output 126
Figure 5-11: Instantaneous Overcurrent Element Pickup Time Curve 129
Figure 6-1: Different Test-Set and Relay Phase Angle References 157
Figure 6-2: Wye PT Secondary Voltage to Primary Voltage Calculation 158
Figure 6-3: Expected Current Calculations for a Meter Test 160
Figure 7-1: Delta and Open-Delta PT Connections 163
Figure 7-2: Test-Set Connection to Delta and Open-Delta PT Connections 163
Figure 7-3: P-N and P-P Test-Set Voltage Phasors 165
Figure 7-4: P-P Test-Set Voltage Phasors 166
Figure 7-5: Old Open-Delta PT Connections 167
Figure 7-6: Old Open-Delta PT Connection Phasor Diagram 168
Figure 7-7: Test-Set Connection with Wye PTs 169
Figure 7-8: Modern Test-Set Connection with Delta PTs 169
Figure 7-9: Wye/Delta Voltages and Line Current Phasor Diagram 170
Figure 7-10: Delta Voltages and Line Current Phasor Diagram 170
Figure 7-11: Delta Voltages and Line Current Relay Phasor Diagram 171
Figure 7-12: Open-Delta Voltage and Line Current Relay Phasor Diagram Comparison 173
Figure 7-13: Old Open-Delta PT Connections with Correct Angles 175
Figure 7-14: Power Formulas 176
Figure 7-15: Three-Phase Power Calculation 177
Figure7-16: Site Schematic Drawing for Beckwith M-3425A 184
Figure 7-17: Site Schematic Drawing for SEL-300G 185
Figure 7-18: SELogic Control Equation Variables Logic 186
Figure 7-19: Site Schematic Drawing for SEL-300G 187
Figure 9-1: Generator Phase Distance Zones of Protection 198
Figure 9-2: Generator Phase Distance Impedance Diagram 199
Figure 9-3: Plotting MHO Characteristic Curves 203
Figure 9-4: SEL-300G MHO Logic 205
Figure 9-5: SEL-300G TR1/TRIP1 Logic 206
Figure 9-6: Example Relay Generator Phase Distance Impedance Diagram 208
Figure 9-7: Three-Phase Impedance Timing Test Calculations 209
Figure 9-8: Zone-1 Three-Phase Impedance Timing Test Plan 211
Figure 9-9: Zone-1 Breaker Status Blocking Test 214
Figure 9-10: SEL-300G 3PO Blocking Logic 214
Figure 9-11: Zone-1 Loss of Potential Blocking Test 216
Figure 9-12: Three-Phase Impedance Timing Test Calculations 217
Figure 9-13: Revised Three-Phase Impedance Timing Test Calculations 217
Figure 9-14: Zone-2 Three-Phase Impedance Timing Test Plan 219
Figure 9-15: Zone-2 Breaker Status Blocking Test 221
Figure 9-16: Zone-2 Loss of Potential Blocking Test 223
Figure 9-17: Multi-Zone 21-Element Dynamic Test Plan 225
Figure 9-18: Zone-1 Three-Phase Impedance 95% Dynamic Test Plan 226
Figure 9-19: Zone-1 Three-Phase Impedance 105% Dynamic Test Plan 229
Figure 9-20: Zone-1 Three-Phase Impedance 95% Dynamic Test Plan – Revised 231
Figure 9-21: Zone-1 Three-Phase Impedance 105% Dynamic Test Plan – Revised 233
Figure 9-22: Zone-2 Three-Phase Impedance 95% Dynamic Test Plan 235
Figure 9-23: Zone-1 Three-Phase Impedance 105% Dynamic Test Plan 237
Figure 9-24: MTA Pulsing Pickup Test Plan and Parameters 239
Figure 9-25: MTA Pulse MTA MHO Characteristic 240
Figure 9-26: MTA Pulsing Pickup Test Plan and Parameters 241
Figure 9-27: MTA Pulsing Pickup Test Plan and Parameters 242
Figure 9-28: MTA Pulse MTA Test with Incorrect MHO Characteristic 242
Figure 9-29: Phase-Phase Impedance Calculation 244
Figure 9-30: Phase-Phase Impedance Calculation 245
Figure 9-31: Phase-Phase Impedance Calculation 246
Figure 10-1: Over-Excitation TCC Curve 249
Figure 10-2: SEL-300G Over-Excitation Characteristic Using Measured V/Hz 256
Figure 10-3: SEL-300G Over-Excitation Characteristic with Multiple of Pickup V/Hz 257
Figure 10-4: V/Hz Formulas 257
Figure 10-5: M-3425A Over-Excitation Characteristic Using Per-Unit V/Hz 258
Figure 10-6: M-3425A Over-Excitation Characteristic Using Per-Unit V/Hz 259
Figure 10-7: Calculate Phase-Phase Nominal V/Hz 260
Figure 10-8: Calculate Phase-Neutral Nominal V/Hz 261
Figure 10-9: Calculate Test V/Hz from V/Hz Setting and Test Multiple 262
Figure 10-10: Calculate Applied V/Hz from Test V/Hz 262
Figure 10-11: Calculate Applied Voltage with Fixed Frequency 263
Figure 10-12: Calculate M-3425A 24-Inverse Time Delay with Inverse Curve #1 264
Figure 10-13: M-3425A 24-Element Inverse Curve #2 266
Figure 10-14: Calculate M-3425A 24-Inverse Time Delay with Inverse Curve #2 267
Figure 10-15: Calculate SEL-300 24-Inverse Time Delay with 24IC=1 Using Official Formula 268
Figure 10-16: Calculate SEL-300G 24-Inverse Time Delay with 24IC=1 269
Figure 10-17: 24-Inverse Over-Excitation Timing Test Plan #1 270
Figure 10-18: 24-Inverse Over-Excitation Timing Test Plan #2 275
Figure 10-19: 24-Inverse Reset Time Test Plan #1 281
Figure 10-20: 24-Inverse Reset Time Test Plan #2 284
Figure 10-21: 24-Definite Time Over-Excitation Timing Test Plan 287
Figure 10-22: 24-Definite Time Loss of Potential Blocking Test 290
Figure 10-23: 24-Definite Time Loss of Potential Blocking Test 292
Figure 10-24: Generic Pickup Test Plan and Parameters 293
Figure 10-25: Pickup Test Plan and Parameters 296
Figure 10-26: 24-Inverse Pickup Test Plan 297
Figure 10-27: 24-Definite Time Over-Excitation Timing Test Plan 301
Figure 10-28: 24-Definite Time Over-Excitation Timing Test Plan 305
Figure 10-29: Calculate Maximum Frequency for Specified Test Voltage During 24-Element Test 307
Figure 10-30: Calculate Maximum Applied V/Hz with no Interactions 309
Figure 10-31: Actual V/Hz Curve with Example Settings 310

Did you like this post?

You can share it with these links:

###### Chris Werstiuk

Chris is an Electrical Engineering Technologist, a Journeyman Power System Electrician, and a Professional Engineer. He is also the Author of The Relay Testing Handbook series and founder of Valence Electrical Training Services. You can find out more about Chris here.