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All posts by Chris Werstiuk

Understanding Transformer Vector Groups

Transformer vector groups can be a difficult concept to understand. I was lucky because the transformer ratio test-set I used for the first couple of years in my career allowed me to make three-phase connections,

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A Good Instrument Transformers Video

Instrument transformers are specially designed to transform high system voltages and currents into smaller voltages and currents for remote metering and protection. Instrument transformers can be

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Potential Transformer Testing (PT/VT)

I co-wrote an article for the NETA World magazine in 2004/2005 that covers several different manual techniques for potential transformer testing that explains several low-tech solutions for potential transformer

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Current Transformer Testing (CT)

I wrote an article for the NETA World magazine in 2004 that covers several different manual techniques for Current Transformer Testing that should help even the most experienced technicians.  Here’s

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Distance or Impedance Protection (21) Video

Line distance (21) protection is primarily used to protect transmission lines or other electrical equipment where the equipment’s impedance characteristic can be calculated or modeled with software

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Good Directional Overcurrent Protection (67) Video

Instantaneous overcurrent (50) and time overcurrent (51) protection can protect equipment from overloads and short circuits, but there are situations where their ability to protect a system is limited.

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Testing Basler BE1-47N Negative Sequence Voltage Relays

Testing more complicated elements that use a percentage or ratio between values can be difficult if you cannot properly define all of the values in the equation.  It doesn’t help that different

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Good Videos to Help Understand Protective Relays

I’m reviewing information for the next book in The Relay Testing Handbook series and came across this Youtube channel. This is a dated, but excellent, video introduction to overcurrent protection (50/51)

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SEL-451 and Frequency Testing Issue

A customer was having problems timing a SEL-451 with a delay setting of 8 cycles. He was measuring a 12 cycle delay when transitioning from 59.5 to 58.5 Hz. If you look at the spec sheet, the SEL-451 frequency

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Connect to a Electro Industries Futura+ Series CPU1000

Cable:        9-pin to 9-pin RS-232 Straight Through Software:   Futura+ Communicator Settings:     Default Settings Link:          Direct Connection Device Address: 0001 Communications

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Reset SEL relays to Factory Defaults

The DC Power supply to the relay quit in the middle of a setting download and when the power was restored, the relay EEprom failed.  I was able to communicate with the relay (at a different BAUD rate)

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Possible Winding Voltages Setup Issue With GE Multilin 745 Transformer Management Relay

This was a nice surprise for me.  Older versions of the SR-745 have a maximum voltage of 200kV.  If you use newer software to set the relay, it indicates a maximum voltage of 2000.0 kV.  If a voltage

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How to Connect to a Beckwith Electric M-3425 Relay

http://www.beckwithelectric.com/ Beckwith M-3425 Generator protection Cable: 9-pin to 9-pin RS-232 Null Modem Software: 3820A IPScom Communications Software Software Default Settings PC Port: Com1 (Varies

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How to Connect to a BE1-GPS100

  Basler GPS100 Relay   Cable: 9-pin to 9-pin RS-232 Straight through Software: Basler Bestcomms software for GPS100 Software Default Settings Comm Port: 1 Varies by Computer (Doesn’t

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How to Connect to a GE MIF Relay

http://www.geindustrial.com/cwc/product … lang=en_US MIF: http://www.geindustrial.com/cwc/product … lang=en_US Cable: 9-pin to 9-pin RS-232 Straight Through Software: GE_NESIS M+PC – http://www.geindustrial.com/publibrary/

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